Deduce and Induce
Deductive and inductive thinking helps to open something without having understood it at that time. Because this ability is important in the study and helpful for the whole life, tasks with deductive and inductive thinking are often part of exams and selection procedures.
The meaning of deduction
Deduction means in translation from Latin derivation. Also derivative is a correct translation. Anyone who thinks deductively recognizes a logical rule and the present conditions. This leads further to a logical consequence, the derived statement. The basis for this, however, is that the present conditions and the logical rule are error-free.
The conclusion drawn must be almost mandatory. But that also means that deduction does not lead to new findings. Deductive thinking is learnable. Deduction is always reasonable in the statement. The following example is unreasonable: If an animal is a dog, it is always a mammal. Black Beauty is a mammal. The (unreasonable) conclusion is: Black Beauty is a dog.
What is induction?
The term induction also comes from the Latin. In the translation, there is talk of cause or accomplishment. Inductive thinking means deriving from a general rule. The derivation thus takes place from individual cases. The difference to the deduction is that the induction can bring quite new findings. However, the consequence is not necessarily true.
- By means of some examples, the difference between deduction and induction becomes even clearer. Deduction excludes the particular from the general, while induction from the individual derives the general.
- An example of induction, that is from an individual case to a universal statement, is the enumeration of well-known personalities who have indisputably lived and indisputably died. Induction is the conclusion that all humans are mortal. The mortality of all people would be the (new) realization.
- Deduction, on the other hand, begins with the general rule that all human beings are mortal. The second statement is that a certain person is a human being. The result is that this person is mortal.
- There are a number of other “mind games” that make epistemology more understandable.
Recognizing relationships in a scientific context is a learning process. Drawing conclusions is a learning process that requires students to be able to separate cause and effect. He has to recognize her for that. Identifying similarities in complicated processes is demanding thinking that improves with the course of study. The growing abilities improve the abstract thinking and the ability to discover interrelationships. Differences in meaning may arise in the different study programs. For example, a legal scholar will apply the concept of the conclusion differently than a Germanist.
Problems in understanding induction and deduction in the study
Every beginning is hard. While the first few weeks of study are still easy to master, students sometimes come up against their limits in dealing with scientific definitions and explanatory models. Those who listen well from the beginning and also study textbooks on the side will find their way in faster.
The important thing is not to be scared. Many students despair of complicated sentences or explanations. The art then consists of finding an author or teacher who explains complicated contexts in smaller steps or with simple words or pictures.
In some faculties simplified explanations are frowned upon. Instead, even today some professors wish that their students are tormented by complicated explanations, which could be explained much easier with some linguistic skill. Especially freshmen should not be intimidated. The ability to understand complex relationships and cumbersome explanations or very scientifically formulated definitions usually improves quickly. So it’s not about simplifying scientific contributions, but finding access.
Deduce and induce in the interview
- Whether internship, part-time job or career entry. Questions and tests in which the applicant’s ability to understand is examined are not uncommon. This will determine whether the candidate is able to understand complex relationships and relate them to each other. The ability also allows conclusions about receptivity and learning ability. But it also provides crucial information on how solution-oriented the applicant can think. The good news is that ability is not necessarily a consequence of personal intelligence. She is learnable. Studying is not absolutely necessary for this. The advantage is that the skills learned in everyday life in various challenges are a great help. To get started, the following skills and inner attitudes are required:
- Accurate consideration of the details
- Willingness to broaden the horizon
- Intuition (which improves in the course of the exercises)
- Practical experience and success experiences
Without feedback on the performance of logical thinking, the ability can not develop. Therefore, it is recommended for everyone to work on themselves and to internalize knowledge teachings. The assets thus acquired prevent important decisions from being made for purely emotional reasons and thus harmful as a result.
Exercises to improve your own deductive skills
Deductive thinking requires mental flexibility. The brain constantly needs new challenges. Those who are stuck in established trajectories (beliefs) will be too stiff for new insights. But it does not help to mentally deal with things that are beyond your own interest. If you like solving puzzles, you should do that. If you do not like that, you will not develop mentally if you force yourself to do so.
On the other hand, learning languages, discussions with reflective people about complex relationships, and good (serious) critical books are all very well suited to improving the ability to draw conclusions and establish mental connections. The available scientific methods can be the basis. They are absolutely necessary during their studies because the student must be able to apply the methods and assign them to the respective scientific opinion. In everyday life, this is not necessary, but – with advanced understanding – can be interesting.